By Arthur Berry
The Manuals are usually not meant for reasons of basic schooling, yet for college students who've made a few boost within the topic handled The assertion of information is intended to demonstrate the operating of common legislation, and the advance of rules , whereas, the historic evolution of the topic handled is stored in view, besides its philosophical significance
Science, Astronomy, sleek & technologies, usual Sciences
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Additional info for A Short History of Astronomy (University Extension Manuals)
But, again, the same continually receding from the facts can be expressed with equal accuracy and greater the stars as fixed on the celestial simplicity if we regard on it from west to east sphere, and the sun as moving in the direction opposite to that of them is, (that among a the daily motion), and at such a rate as to complete same circuit of the celestial sphere and to return to the m position aftei a year This annual motion of the sun is, howevei, readily seen not to be merely a motion from west to east, for if so the sun would always rise and set at the same points of the the sky horizon, as a star does, and its midday height and the time from sunrise to sunset would always be the We have already seen that if a star lies on the same is above the horizon, if equator half of its daily path than half, and if south more the of north is star the equator true of the equator less than half, and what is tiue of a star is motion of for the same reason of any body sharing the daily the celestial sphere During the summei months theiefore when the day is longer than the night, to Septembei), (March the sun's daily path is above the of half than more and m of the cquatoi, and dmmg Maich) the sun must be The change in the sun's distance south of the equator the winter from the pole is also evident from the fact that horizon, the sun must be noith the winter months (September to m The Annual Motion of II] months the sun in summer, and is the Sun on the whole lower down in the sky than that m particular its midday height is less the celestial sphere is theiefore oblique to the equator, lying partly on one side of it and partly on the other good deal of caieful observation of the kind we have been describing must, however, have been necessary befoie it was ascertained that the sun's annual path on the celestial sphere (see fig 4) is a great circle (that is, a circle having its centre at the centre of the sphere) This great cncle is now called the ecliptic The ii sun's path on A (because eclipses take place only or near it), and the angle at which when it the moon is cuts the equator The Chinese claim called the obliquity of the ecliptic in is to have measured the obliquity in noo B c and to have found the remarkably accurate value 23 52' (cf chapter n 35), The truth of this statement may reasonably be doubted, but on the other hand the statement of some late Greek writers that either Pythagoras or Anaximander (6th century B c ) was , , the first obliquity to discover the of the ecliptic is NORTH POLE almost ceitamly wrong It must have been known with reasonable accuiacy to both Chaldacans and Egyptians long befoie When the sun crosses the equator the day is equal to the night, and the times when this o ecu is are conknown as the sequently equinoxes, the vernal equinox occurring when the sun ciosses the equator from south to noith (about Mai eh and the autumnal 2ist), D SOUTH POLE FIG 4 The equatoi and the cchptu equinox when it ciosses back (about September 23rd) The points on the celestial sphere where the sun crosses the eqiuitoi (A, c in fig 4), ic wheic ecliptic and equatoi anothei, aic called the equinoctial points, occasionally also the equinoxes.
6 The apparent path of Jupitei 7 The apparent path of Mercury 8- 1 1 The phases of the moon 12 13 14 15 17 The 1 8 19 17 30, 31 . Flic meafauicmont ucccntiic ot 32 . distances of 34 36 38 39 the earth ... 44 I he position of the sun's apogee The epicycle and the dcfcient . 20 1 he eclipse method and moon ot 45 47 connecting the di&tanccb ot the sun .... The mucase of the longitude 22 flic movement oi the oquatoi 21 23, 24. Hu 30 a oi stai ,. 53, , . , 29 riio sun aud moon 31 Paiallax 32 Rcii action *,, oi tlu 54 57 57 ..
Distances of 34 36 38 39 the earth ... 44 I he position of the sun's apogee The epicycle and the dcfcient . 20 1 he eclipse method and moon ot 45 47 connecting the di&tanccb ot the sun .... The mucase of the longitude 22 flic movement oi the oquatoi 21 23, 24. Hu 30 a oi stai ,. 53, , . , 29 riio sun aud moon 31 Paiallax 32 Rcii action *,, oi tlu 54 57 57 .. Put U ill eclipse oi UK moon Fotal i chpst" oi the moon 30 Aunulfu eclipse 52 53 pieeossion oi the equinoxes 25 1 ho oai th's shadow 26 The ecliptic and the moon's path 27 28 1 12 16 The curvature of the eai th The method of Austarchus for comparing the the sun and moon The cquatoi and the ecliptic The cquatoi, the hoiizon, and the meridian 6 1 8 58 ,.