By Sommerfeld A.
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Physics of laser crystals has been continually constructing because the invention of the laser in 1960. these days, greater than 1500 wide-band-gap and semiconductors crystals are compatible for the construction of the laser influence. various laser units are conventional in technology, medication and communique structures in response to the development accomplished within the improvement of laser crystal physics.
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K. Orgassa, Coherent Optical Analysis of the ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Film Solar Cell. D. Thesis, Universit¨ at Stuttgart, Germany (2004). 30, 31 23. U. Rau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 111 (1999). 32 24. U. Rau, A. Jasenek, H. W. Schock, F. Engelhardt, T. Meyer, Thin Solid Films 361-362, 298 (2000). 32 25. R. H. Bube, Photolectronic Properties of Semiconductors (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1992). 32 26. M. Turcu, O. Pakma, U. Rau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2598 (2002). 32 27. J. Reiß, J. Malmstr¨ om, A.
Again there is no fundamental diﬀerence between semiconductor / metal and semiconductor heterocontacts. For the latter, the band alignment is given by alignment of the charge neutrality levels. Unfortunately the charge neutrality levels have not been calculated for a large number of materials in thin ﬁlm solar cells (see Fig. 1). In addition, the II-VI compound semiconductors CdTe, CdS and its multinary analogue Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 have considerable ionicity and the Fermi level might therefore be not strongly pinned.
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