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EB lithography is used to fabricate 2D photonic crystals. Nanolithography Nanolithography is used to make semiconductor integrated circuits and nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) by etching, writing or printing. Several techniques employ nanotools to create nanostructured features. Photolithography has long been used for microchip fabrication and can also be used to make some nanoscale devices. Research into nanolithography is funded by academic institutions, computer chip manufacturers and other public and private sources.

Extrusion Extrusion is used to create long objects having a fixed cross section, such as circular, rectangular, L-shaped and T-shaped. A billet of material is pushed and drawn through a die that has the desired cross section. Extrusion may be continuous (producing indefinitely long material) or semicontinuous (repeatedly producing shorter pieces). It reduces the need for secondary machining but the dimensional accuracy and surface finish are not as good as on machined parts. 1). The barrel is a heated hollow steel cylinder, similar to a thick pipe.

CVD may be defined as the deposition of a solid on a heated surface from a chemical reaction in the vapour phase. CVD competes with the PVD processes, but is also used in conjunction with PVD and many newer processes. Process Many factors influence the CVD process: thermodynamic, mass transport and kinetic considerations; the chemistry of the reaction; the processing temperature and pressure; and the chemical activities of the materials. A variety of methods are used to apply the energy for CVD: heating, photochemistry and lasers Advantages  CVD has a high output power.

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