By Kevin Hillstrom

Describes and translates the period of the Civil struggle, its occasions, and issues with viewpoints, definitions, document issues, chronologies, sidebars, and facts.

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1818–1895): escaped slave who became a leading abolitionist E Jubal Early (1816–1894): Confederate lieutenant general who led the 1864 campaign in Shenandoah Valley; also fought at First Bull Run, Second Bull Run, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, the Wilderness, and Spotsylvania xl American Civil War: Almanac F David G. Farragut (1801–1870): Union admiral who led naval victories at New Orleans and Mobile Bay G Ulysses S. Grant (1822–1885): Union general who commanded all Federal troops, 1864–65; led Union armies at Shiloh, Vicksburg, Chattanooga, and Petersburg; eighteenth president of the United States, 1869–77 H Henry W.

By 1860, the census counted nearly four million slaves in America, and it was clear that the institution of slavery had be- come completely interwoven in the fabric of Southern society. The resurgence of slavery in the American South depressed many people, from common citizens to political leaders. They recognized that with each passing year, it would become harder and harder for the Southern states to abandon slavery and establish a free society. Reviewing the situation, Thomas Jefferson compared slavery to a dangerous wolf: “We have the wolf by the ears, and we can neither hold him, nor safely let him go.

In 1836, for example, Virginia passed a law that made it a felony for anyone to advocate (speak in favor of) abolition. Such laws rarely had to be enforced, however, because Southerners who expressed doubts about slav20 American Civil War: Almanac ery learned that such statements put them in great danger from their own neighbors. By the late 1830s, whites in the American South were defending slavery and objecting to Northern interference with their way of life with one united voice. Resistance to abolitionism in the North Convinced that Southerners would never abandon slavery willingly, Northern abolitionists focused much of their attention on fellow Northerners.

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