By Gwendolyn Leick

The one English-language ebook of its style, this dictionary supplies a finished survey of the full diversity of old close to jap structure: from the Neolithic around huts in Palestine to the large temples of Ptolemaic Egypt. Leick describes the differences of average old architectural constructions equivalent to pyramids, tombs and homes, information the development fabric and methods hired, and clarifies professional terminology.

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Egyptian villas (eg at ILAHUN or TELL EL-AMARNA) feature en suite bathrooms next to bedrooms lined with stone, complete with latrines connected to underground vessels. In Mesopotamia they were mainly found in palaces (eg MARI, KALAKH). They contained bench-like stone slabs and the floors were made impermeable by the application of a thick coat of bitumen over baked-brick floors. Bath-tubs of bronze were in use in North Syria during the 1st millennium BC. At ZINJIRLI five suites of well-equipped bathrooms in conjunction with rest rooms and toilets were discovered.

It was also used for Syro-Palestinian sanctuaries (MEGIDDO, BETH-SHAN, TELL MARDIKH etc). The longitudinal cella in combination with a shallow ante-cella or vestibule is characteristic for Assyrian temples. The standard layout for the Jewish temples, as described in the Old Testament Temple of Solomo, also had a Langraum-cella (see JERUSALEM). 37 BRICKS ‘Broad-room’, ‘Steinerner Bau’ (Stone Building) (Uruk IV) bricks see BAKED BRICKS, GLAZED BRICK AND TILE, MUDBRICK Buhen Egypt, see map p. xvi.

They were virtually indispensable for monumental buildings because they could span much larger spaces (8–12m), and exports to Egypt and Mesopotamia are attested from the 3rd millennium BC onwards. Beni-Hasan Egypt, see map p. xvi. Cemetery on a cliffface on the E side of the Nile near Minya. It contains thirty-nine ROCK TOMBS dating from the XI and XII Dynasties (c. Beni-Hasan: rock-cut tomb (Middle Kingdom) 2133–1786 BC) which had been commissioned by wealthy administrators (nomarchs). The oldest tombs at Beni-Hasan have a simple square tomb-chamber with a single or treble row of columns or pillars cut from the rock.

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