By Virmani, O. P.; Narula, A. K.

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5 Kinetics of a Second Order Reaction A second order reaction in which there is only one reactant is represented by 2A "Products. es/litre be the initial concentration of A, out of which 'x' gram-moles/lifre is convened into products in 't' minutes. 35). 37), there is one additional concentration term in the denominator. pellds on the units in which the concentration of the reactants is expressed. If the concentration is expressed in molesllitre and the time in minutes, the units of k will be (moles/litrer1 minute-I.

Ammonium chloride-ammonium hydroxide buffer (pH 10). 4. Eriochrome Black T indicator solution. 1. CH z ~ . CH Z /N -CH z '''CH Z ' COONa iOllises ill water to give 2Na + ions alld a strong chdating agent Applied Chemistry 50 which for simplicity can be represented by H2 y2-. It fonns complexes with cl+ and MgZ+ and other divalent or higher valent cations repersented by the reactions: Hz yZ M2+ + ----'J> MY z - + 2H + - - -...... 37) The dissociation of these complexes is govenwd by the pH oUhe solution and the complexes with hardness causing divalent ions are.

3 3 A1 + and Fe + may also contribute to tbe bardness of water but tbeir ionic concentrations in natural waters are generally negligible.. Surface waters contain very small amounts of dissolved impurity. , and dissolves the insoluble carbonates present: MC0 3 + CO 2 + H 20 --~. , present as impurities in tbe limestone becoIl1l~ exposed to the solvent action of water and pass into solution, thereby adding to the hardness orwatt~r. ,:-+ eq. wt. 25) as CaC03 [50 being the eq. wI ofCaC03 ] where M2+ is any divalent metallic ion.

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