By Howard Thomas Foster II, Mary Theresa Bonhage-Freund, Lisa D. O'Steen

The first complete archaeological survey of the Muskogee (Maskókî) Creek Indians.
The Muskogee Indians who lived alongside the decrease Chattahoochee and Flint River watersheds had, and proceed to have, a profound impact at the improvement of the southeastern usa, in particular in the course of the old interval (circa 1540–1836). Our wisdom of that tradition is proscribed to what we will examine from their descendants and from archaeological and historic assets.
Combining old files and archaeological learn on all recognized reduce Muskogee Creek websites, Thomas Foster has properly pinpointed city destinations mentioned within the literature and stated in modern Creek oral histories. In so doing, this quantity synthesizes the archaeological range and edition in the reduce Creek Indians among 1715 and 1836. The e-book is a learn of archaeological tools since it analyzes the temporal and geographic edition inside of a unmarried archaeological part and the biases of that archaeological data. Foster's examine segregates the adaptation among decrease Creek Indian cities via a neighborhood and direct ancient strategy. for that reason, he's in a position to parent the original ameliorations among person Creek Indian towns. 
Foster argues that the examine of Creek Indian background can be on the point of cities rather than archaeological stages and that there's major continuity among the tradition of the ancient interval Indians and the Prehistoric and Protohistoric peoples.

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Since there are numerous and recent reviews of various aspects of Creek Indian society using ethnohistoric sources, this review deals with those cultural aspects that are more likely to affect archaeological deposits such as subsistence and architecture remains. The ethnohistoric sources present a relatively static perspective of an ethnographic present and do not quantitatively or even qualitatively demonstrate the variation between individual towns or households. Historic documents are also limited in temporal scope because most of our reliable documents are from the late eighteenth century.

94:1. Slaves consisted of about 3 percent of the total population. 44 individuals, on average (Douthat 1995). This is a slight increase in the number of children per parents over the 1725 census. SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ORGANIZATION Since the Creek Indians were an amalgam of different cultural groups, generalization about their social and political organization is tenuous. Nevertheless, the majority spoke a similar language and all were Southeastern Indians who shared common cultural characteristics (Hudson 1976; Urban 1994).

Nevertheless, the majority spoke a similar language and all were Southeastern Indians who shared common cultural characteristics (Hudson 1976; Urban 1994). While the ultimate decision-making unit of Southeastern Indians was the individual, the economic unit was the hûti, or household (Ethridge 2003:142; Hudson 1976; Saunt 1999:40; Waselkov and Braund 1995:127). The household consisted of a wife and husband, their daughters and sons-in-law, and unmarried grandchildren (Swanton 1928b:79, 170). The house and its associated property belonged to the eldest female in the household (Foster 2003a:73s; Saunt 1999:39).

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