By Arnab Rai Choudhuri

Designed for instructing astrophysics to physics scholars at complicated undergraduate or starting graduate point, this textbook additionally presents an summary of astrophysics for astrophysics graduate scholars, earlier than they delve into extra really good volumes. Assuming historical past wisdom on the point of a physics significant, the textbook develops astrophysics from the fundamentals with no requiring any earlier examine in astronomy or astrophysics. actual thoughts, mathematical derivations and observational facts are mixed in a balanced technique to offer a unified remedy. subject matters resembling normal relativity and plasma physics, which aren't often coated in physics classes yet used greatly in astrophysics, are built from first rules. whereas the emphasis is on constructing the basics completely, fresh very important discoveries are highlighted at each level.

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6) Pressure due to radiation The pressure of the radiation field over a surface is given by the flux of momentum perpendicular to that surface. The momentum associated with energy dEν 26 Interaction of radiation with matter is dEν /c and its component normal to the surface dA is dEν cos θ/c. 2). e. Pν = 1 c Iν cos2 θ d . 7) If the radiation field is isotropic, then we get Pν = Iν c cos2 θ d = 4π Iν . 5) that Iν c for isotropic radiation. 9) for isotropic radiation. 2 Radiative transfer equation If matter is present, then in general the specific intensity keeps changing as we move along a ray path.

From the beginning of the twentieth century, reflecting telescopes started becoming large enough for accurate extragalactic studies. 5 m reflector at Mount Wilson Observatory in California, commissioned in 1917, was probably one of the most important telescopes in the history of astronomy. It was used by astronomers like Hubble to make several path-breaking discoveries. The 5 m reflector of the nearby Mount Palomar Observatory, completed in 1948, remained the world’s largest telescope for several years.

One of the most famous results in the theory of blackbody radiation is Planck’s law (Planck, 1900), which specifies the energy density Uν in the frequency range ν, ν + dν: Uν dν = 8π h ν 3 dν . 1) This law more or less provides us with complete information about blackbody radiation at a given temperature T . Since blackbody radiation is isotropic, we do not have to provide any directional information. In general, however, the radiation in an arbitrary situation is not isotropic. When we have sunlight streaming into a room, we obviously have a non-isotropic situation involving the flow of radiation from a preferred direction.

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