By John Alan Chalmers

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53. Electrical Phenomena Associated with Changes of State of Water Many of the theories concerned with the production o f electric charges in clouds have been based on effects occurring in changes of state of water, and it is convenient to collect together here the experi­ mental evidence on the subject. For the definition of the terms used, the reader is referred to § 4 9 . There does not appear to be any separation of charge in the processes of evaporation or condensation. Investigating the phenomena of vaporization and sublimation, FINDEISEN and FINDEISEN ( 1 9 4 3 ) found that small ice splinters were formed in both processes.

D D T , but the only sure protection is the removal of webs when formed. Sulphur insulation is suitable for outdoor installations provided that arrangement is made for some heating to be provided to keep the surface warm, to avoid condensation, but it must be realized that the heating element is liable to attract insects. In connection with heating coils, a peculiar difficulty is liable to arise in certain cases if the heating is by alternating current; if the apparatus has some mechanism for making and breaking contact, this may leave the collector with some charge and potential arising from induction effects from the alternating current, unless the 48 ATMOSPHERIC ELECTRICITY latter is surrounded by a very efficient earthed screen; and, since the induced charge depends upon the exact phase of the alternating current when the contact is broken, the value differs from one occasion to another.

45. Cloud Types T h e various types of cloud have very different electric effects and it will be convenient to summarize some of the features of the clouds. From the point of view of atmospheric electricity, the most important cloud type is the cumulonimbus, which is the storm or shower cloud, characterized by great vertical height, limited horizontal extent, large vertical air currents and turbulence, and heavy rain, with, in the storm cloud, the production of lightning and thunder. The development of the thunder clouds is dealt with in §50.

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