By Indrek Martinson (auth.), Richard Marrus (eds.)
The final decade has visible dramatic development within the improvement of units for generating mu1ticharged ions. certainly it really is now pos sible to supply any cost country of any ion correct up via ninety two fully-stripped uranium (U +). both dramatic development has been completed within the strength variety of the to be had ions. as an instance, fully-stripped neon ions were produced in useable amounts with kinetic energies starting from a number of ev to greater than 20 Gev. curiosity within the atomic physics of multicharged ions has grown apace. within the fusion application, the spectra of those ions is an im portant diagnostic device. additionally the presence of mu1ticharged ions offers a major power loss mechanism in fusion units. This truth has prompted a software to review the collision mech anisms concerned. In one other sector, mu1ticharged ions are found in the sunlight corona and the interstellar medium and information in their collision homes and spectra is key to appreciate ing the astrophysics. different attainable functions are to x-ray lasers and heavy ion inertial fusion. On a extra basic point, new percentages for trying out quantum electrodynamics with mu1ti charged ions have emerged.
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Extra info for Atomic Physics of Highly Ionized Atoms
22. Decay measurement for a very short-lived level, 1s2p 1p in C V (Knystautas and Drouin 1976). A careful experimental design resulted in excellent spatial resolution along the beam. The decay curve also shows the effects of cascading from higher levels. The BFS method can be applied to very many levels in atoms and ions. Lifetime data have so far been obtained for many species ranging from neutrals to more than 30 times ionized atoms. There should be no substantial difficulties in extending the work to 40- 50 times ionized systems.
1980,Livingston and Hinterlong 1980, Martinson 1982). EXPERIMENTAL INVESilGATIONS OF STRUCTURE 31 LIFETIMES AND TRANSITION PROBABILITIES The following well-known relation holds in the case of the electric dipole (El) approximation (3 ) Here 1. is the lifetime of the excited level, A. f the probability for spontaAeous decay, nW the photon energy, a the fLne-structure constant, c the speed of light, ¢. and ¢f the wavefunctions of the levels involved and Q = Erj theLdipole operator. A convenient quantity is the absorption oscillator strength (or f-value), numerically related to Aif according to (4 ) The wavelength A is given in weights of the levels.
In PLT, two methods have been extensively used, with power levels larger §han ohmic power: 40 keV neutral hydrogen or deuterium beams, 0 and radio-frequency power near the ion cyclotron frequency. 2 second, and both methods heat preferentially the ions [up to Tt(o) - 6-7 keV], although some significant electron heating [to Te(o) - 3-4 kev] and other changes in plasma conditions can also occur. However, with regard to the physics of highly-ionized atoms the effect is mainly quantitative with one known exception: the neutral beam injection increases substantially the neutral hydroffen deqsity in the ho~ interior of the plasma (to levels of 10 - 10 cm- 3 or ...