By C. A. Fleming (auth.), G. Kuschel (eds.)

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Andicula of Peru, Fig. 11) are Austral immigrants at this time. UIRES, 1958). The most important of many Foraminifera which entered in the Middle and Upper Eocene is Hantkenina, world-wide in distribution. In the Upper Eocene a marked warming almost to tropical conditions (HORNIBROOK, 1953) is suggested by the return of the Orbitoid Asterocyclina, the appearance of the cidarid Eucidaris (at the Chatham Islands; FELL, 1954), the regular echinoid Brochopleurus, the lamellibranch Hinnites and the gastropod Colubraria.

Apart from volcanoes, however, the land was not yet mountainous. MARINE FAUNAS Two strongly contrasting climatic provinces are apparent in the shallowwater Lower Miocene marine fauna. g. ). Some characteristic mid-Tertiary warmwater invertebrates are shown in Fig. 13. All told, the Lower Miocene marks a high-point of mid-Tertiary warmth and of the Indo-Pacific faunal influence that it brought (FLEMING, 1962a; 1967 a; BE U & MAXWELL, 1968); it may even have exceeded the Eocene temperature maximum.

In the newly-formed Kaiata Gulf inside 'Karamea Peninsula' dark carbonaceous silt was deposited above coal measures, bordered by land that rose quickly enough locally to form steep cliffed coasts in late Eocene time. In the Waikato Basin, too, there was appreciable relief in the coal-measure landscape. MARINE FAUNA The Bortonian marine shelf fauna was one of the most distinctive in New Zealand's Tertiary history. It contained several restricted endemic genera and the first members of many common Tertiary genera.

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