By Victor Fet (auth.), Victor Fet, Khabibulla I. Atamuradov (eds.)

remnants of gene swimming pools of those species. Badghyz traditional Reserve, verified in 1941, turned a safe haven for the final latest inhabitants of the Turkmen onager (Equus hemionus onager) and a different pistachio wooded area. a brand new new release oflocal Turkmen scientists, lots of whom have been expert via the Russian researchers within the graduate faculties of Moscow and Leningrad arose from the Nineteen Thirties in the course of the Nineteen Fifties. The Turkmen Academy of Sciences and its magazine, complaints (including the per 30 days organic series), served to list the result of diversified organic reports within the republic. whereas easy technological know-how within the heart Asian republics really won from the Russian "colonial" effect, ordinary assets, by contrast, have been critically broken by means of the Soviet approach of dealing with the economic system and social concerns. critical environmental difficulties were inherited by means of the now self sustaining Turkmenistan, together with overgrazed barren region pastures, deforested mountains, depleted water assets, gathered insecticides in cotton fields, declining populations of endangered species of animals and crops, and - worst of al- progressing, human-caused desertification (Kharin this volume). that allows you to technique an answer to those difficulties, scientists and officers within the republic will desire the shut consciousness and aid of the overseas medical community.

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Temperature inversion forms above the wide irrigated areas, wind speed decreases, and a specific microclimate forms. Geographic Location. Due to its southern location, Turkmenistan receives a great deal of heat from the sun. Summer is long, hot, and very dry, and winter is short and generally has a non-stable temperature regime. The climate of Turkmenistan belongs to the warm climates of the earth. However, the immediate proximity of temperate areas with continental climates, exposure of the territory in the north, and the republic's separation from the subtropical zone by large mountain systems in the south determine some temperate features of the climate.

Relief character, altitude, slope exposure, and location of 30 Nikolai S. Orlovsky mountain ranges); on presence of, and distance from, water bodies; and on the character of soil and vegetation. Lowland Turkmenistan is occupied by deserts; desert also influences the mountainous part of the republic. In the warm period, enormous sand desert areas facilitate significant transformation of incoming Atlantic air masses. Thus, the climate of Turkmenistan acquires its extreme dryness. A specific lowland regime of atmospheric circulation is somewhat modified in the foothills and mountains.

Cold invasions during warm winters are rare and not intensive; relatively warm air masses (temperate Turanian and South European air) prevail in these years (Bugaev et al. 1957). In warm periods some pasture plant species, usually ephemeroids and ephemers, start growing. Winter precipitation brought by cold air masses from the north and west, can occur as rain or as snow. In lowland Turkmenistan, the snow cover is not stable and may form and thaw several times. Usually, snow cover forms in the lowlands beginning in late December; on the Caspian shore, snow forms from late December to early January; and on the submontane plain of the Kopetdagh, in Badghyz, and in Karabil, it appears usually in mid-December.

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