By Girish Fatterpekar, Thomas P. Naidich, Peter M. Som
Useful and clinically targeted, mind and backbone Imaging - a identify within the educating documents sequence - will give you over three hundred attention-grabbing and well-presented circumstances that will help you higher diagnose any ailment of the mind and backbone. professional within the box, Dr. Girish Fatterpekar, MD makes use of a logical association all through, making referencing tricky diagnoses more uncomplicated than ever prior to. specified discussions of state-of-the-art modalities and applied sciences retain you modern, and tough diagnostic questions probe your wisdom of the cloth. This precise, case-based source provides you with a good way to sharpen your diagnostic talents and learn for board checks.
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Ventriculomegaly is usually associated. Narrow diamond or “keyhole”-shaped fourth ventricle is commonly seen. Congenital Muscular Dystrophies: May present with vermian hypoplasia, cerebellar cysts, brainstem hypoplasia, and posterior cephalocele. “Cobblestone” liss encephaly and Z-shaped brainstem may also be seen. Multiple System Atrophy—Cerebellar Type: Demonstrates atrophy of the inferior olivary nuclei, pons, and cerebellum. MR classically shows cruciform hyper intense signal in the pons on T2WI (“Hot cross bun” sign).
Osborn AG: Disorders of neural tube closure. In Diagnostic neuroradiology, ed 2, St. Louis, 1994, Mosby. Robertson R, Caruso PA, Truwit CL, Barkovich JA: Disorders of brain development. In Atlas SW, editor: Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spine, ed 3, Philadelphia, 2002, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Case 12 25 Figure 1. Sagittal T1WI demonstrates a syrinx extending from the craniocervical junction up to the upper thoracic spine. Figure 2. Sagittal T2WI demonstrates downward displacement of peg-shaped tonsils.
Drug and Toxin Exposure: Diphenyl hydantoin, aminopterin, and aluminium toxicity are associated with POAF. Appropriate history and blood levels can be useful in their evaluation. Normal: If after an exhaustive review no underlying etiology is found and the child is otherwise normal, POAF can be considered normal. The anterior fontanelle closes later than normal. Such children should, however, be followed in the clinic to make sure that they are growing normally. Suggested Readings Aisenson HR: Closing of the anterior fontanelle, Pediatrics 6:223–225, 1950.