By Joshua Holo

Utilizing basic resources, Joshua Holo uncovers the daily workings of the Byzantine-Jewish economic climate within the heart Byzantine interval. equipped on an internet of alternate structures either specific to the Jewish group and built-in in society at huge, this economic system forces a revision of Jewish background within the area. satirically, the 2 designated monetary orientations, inward and outward, at the same time complex either the mixing of the Jews into the bigger Byzantine financial system and their segregation as a self-contained physique financial. Dr Holo reveals that the Jews usually leveraged their inner, even particular, structures of legislations and tradition to damage into - sometimes to dominate - Byzantine markets. In doing so, they problem our inspiration of Diaspora lifestyles as a stability among the 2 competing impulses of integration and segregation. The good fortune of this firm, additionally, qualifies the existing declare of Jewish monetary decline throughout the advertisement Revolution.

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29. For the textual-critical and literary problems of Benjamin’s Itinerary, see G. Busi, “Binyamin da Tudela: nuove avventure bibliografiche,” Materia Giudaica: Bollettino dell’Associazione italiana per lo studio del giudaismo 3 (1997): 39–40, where Busi calls into question Benjamin’s estimate of the size of the Jerusalem Jewish community. Krauss, Studien, 77–86. Neubauer, “The Jews in Southern Italy,” pp. 613–14; Starr, JBE, 131 and notes, translates the same text, but his version counts “ … more than one hundred communities” (emphasis added); cf.

Laiou, “Byzantium and the Commercial Revolution,” passim. The new orthodoxy in this question has much numismatic evidence to back it up, as summarized by M. F. Hendy, Alexius I to Michael VIII, 1081–1261, vol. IV of Catalogue of the Byzantine Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection, ed. A. R. Bellinger and P. , 1969); Hendy, Studies in the Byzantine Monetary Economy c. 300–1450 (Cambridge, 1985); Hendy, “Byzantium 1081–1204: an Economic Reappraisal,” in The Economy, Fiscal Administration and Coinage of Byzantium (Northampton, 1989), art.

39 36 37 38 39 Theophanes, Chronographia, I, 328–9. See above, n. 32, for P. Speck’s puzzling defense of the Jews. See M. K. Krikorian, “Sebeos, Historian of the Seventh Century,” in Classical Armenian Culture: Influences and Creativity, ed. T. Samuelian (Chico, 1982), 65, and, in the same volume, Z. Arzoumanian, “A Critique of Sebeos and his History of Heraclius, a Seventh-Century Armenian Document,” 74. The most recent translation, The Armenian History Attributed to Sebeos, trans. R. W. Thomson and comm.

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