By Roger J.B. King, Mike W. Robins

Presents a transparent, concise and authoritative advent to the organic ideas that underlie the explanations and therapy of melanoma.

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Extra info for Cancer Biology (3rd Edition)

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Another function of pathology is in monitoring completeness of surgery. Because cancers have ill-defined margins, it is sometimes difficult for a surgeon to decide what should be removed; microscopic analysis of an excised lump can inform whether cancer cells occur at its edges and thereby provide evidence as to efficiency of removal. 1 Classifying cancers Neoplasms are classified as being benign or malignant; malignant neoplasms are equivalent to cancer. 3). 3 Terminology. General Growth: vague term that covers any collection of hyperproliferative cells Neoplasm: general term used to identify a new growth without defining the characteristics of that growth Tumour: general term used to describe any abnormal growth Cancer: invasive growth with abnormal cellular and architectural features.

1) from another gene to ensure adequate expression. This manipulation allows analysis of potential function of the gene in question but, in the absence of the normal promoter, quantitative differences in expression do not permit the conclusion that the gene actually generates the observed effects in normal animals. The animal can be monitored to see what biological changes result from having this gene engineered; this technique is used widely to study oncogene function. Alternatively, DNA base changes can be engineered in a gene and the immediate consequences monitored by introduction into cultured cells with a technique called transfection.

On the other hand, DNA repair defects resulting from MSH2 and MLH1 mutations by generating a mutator phenotype would be prime candidates as an initiating event, but they occur in only a minority of sporadic cancers. It is important to identify the causes of the genetic alterations. Chemical carcinogens can generate colorectal cancers in rodents but, in humans, one is largely confined to talking about environmental or dietary carcinogens with minimal definition of what that means. There is a 19-fold difference between countries with the highest incidence (USA) and lowest incidence (India) of colorectal cancer; this indicates a lifestyle effect, probably dietary.

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