By Frances Cogan

More than 5 thousand American civilian males, ladies, and youngsters dwelling within the Philippines in the course of global struggle II have been limited to internment camps following Japan's past due December 1941 victories in Manila. Captured tells the tale of lifestyle in 5 diverse camps--the crowded housing, mounting familial and overseas tensions, heavy exertions, and more and more critical malnourishment that made the internees' rescue a race with hunger. Frances B. Cogan explores the occasions at the back of this approximately four-year captivity, explaining how and why this little-known internment happened. an intensive ancient account, the e-book addresses a number of arguable concerns in regards to the internment, together with eastern intentions towards their prisoners and the U.S. nation Department's position in permitting the presence of yankee civilians within the Philippines in the course of wartime.

Supported by way of diaries, memoirs, struggle crimes transcripts, jap squaddies' debts, scientific info, and plenty of different resources, Captured provides a close and relocating chronicle of the internees' efforts to outlive. Cogan compares residing stipulations in the internment camps with existence in POW camps and with the residing stipulations of jap infantrymen overdue within the battle. An afterword discusses the reviews of internment survivors after the conflict, combining scientific and criminal records with own anecdotes to create a testomony to the millions of usa citizens whose captivity haunted them lengthy after the warfare ended.

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Extra info for Captured: The Japanese Internment of American Civilians in the Philippines, 1941-1945

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The compadre (or ritual relative) network, in place since the Spanish rule and now expanded to include employers and their families guaranteed a de facto government by special interest for clients in exchange for votes from the network the next time that politician came up for elective office. Pomeroy adds, quoting Renato Constantino, that the ilustrados Pearl of the Orient 21 eventually and naturally waltzed into an easy collaboration with the Japanese, because their cooperation would, it seemed, continue to maintain this elites powerful status —one that literally fostered corruption (Pomeroy, 117; Karnow, 13; 20-22).

I had a gut feeling, without any facts, figures, geographical knowledge to back it up. I just felt that war was coming; that the islands were defenseless. Like most Americans in business in Manila, Ralph s company was doing very well. He was involved with new engineering projects for the government. This was not the time to pick up and leave, he said. (Nash, 15) Grace couldn't bear to leave him alone and take the boys back to the United States. " and that, despite the dangerous times, he seemed more dedicated 29 30 Captured to his career advancement than to his family's safety.

Margaret Sams, like Frieda Magnuson and Grace Nash, is an example of this. Sams grew up in the small California town of Beaumont and worked to put herself through two years of college at Riverside Junior College before the war (Sams, 25; 29-30); she, like Bessie Sneed, came to the Philippines be- Pearl of the Orient cause of her husband Bob Sherks job in mining —Sherk was a mine-shifter in a gold mine in Suyoc, northern Luzon (Sams, 32; 39-40). Nor was Grace Nash wealthy, though she served on occasion as assistant concertmistress for the Manila Symphony or as a featured soloist.

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